"The FAA’s reliance on antiquated technology is the clearest symptom of an underlying problem with the way the air traffic control system is run. When the FAA undertook air traffic control modernization in 1981, it estimated that the work would cost $12 billion and take a decade to complete. Thirty-four years and $56 billion later, the FAA still has not been able to achieve large-scale modernization; most of that money has gone to replace and upgrade existing equipment, yielding only incremental improvements in capacity and safety. Although the FAA is more than a decade into to its effort to move to a next-generation, satellite-based system, NextGen is facing the same systemic problems that have plagued past modernization efforts."